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It was not until twelve years later, in 1824, that the United States Supreme Court
speaking by its great Chief Justice, John Marshall
, struck down the New York
grant as unconstitutional in the landmark case
of Gibbons v
opinion, however, rested entirely on the ground that the New York "patent"
conflicted with federal legislation regulating the navigation, through New York
waters, of federally licensed vessels engaged in interstate commerce
expressly declined to ...